Leukocytes (white blood cells indicating infection), Nitrite, Urobilinogen, Protein, pH, Blood, Specific Gravity, Ketone, Bilirubin, Glucose

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The Urinalysis can determine a number of health problems. It will see if your kidneys are functioning normally, if sugar is present in your urine, if you’re burning fat or if you have a urinary tract infection (its most common use). In addition, it can locate substances that may be causing everything from metabolic problems to kidney disorders. Some doctors request a Urinalysis before surgery or during the early stages of pregnancy.


Why the Test is Performed

A urinalysis may be done: As part of a routine medical exam to screen for early signs of disease. If you have signs of diabetes or kidney disease, or to monitor you if you are being treated for these conditions. To check for blood in the urine. To diagnose a urinary tract infection


A Urinalysis should be considered if you’re experiencing back pain, abdominal pain, blood in the urine, painful urination or frequent urination. These symptoms can be signs of more problematic health concerns such as urinary tract infections or organ failure in people with kidney disease.


Normal Results

Normal urine may vary in color from almost colorless to dark yellow. Some foods (like beets and blackberries) may turn the urine a red color.

Usually, glucose, ketones, protein, and bilirubin are not detectable in urine. The following are not normally found in urine:

  • Hemoglobin
  • Nitrites
  • Red blood cells

  • White blood cells




0-500 leu/uL




less than 17 µmol/L




ranges from 4.6 to 8.0



Specific Gravity

ranges from 1.002 to 1.028








High Results Indicate:

LEUKOCYTES: Elevated results could indicate urinary tract infection or contamination.

NITRITE: Elevated results could indicate a urinary tract infection or bacterial infection.

UROBILINOGEN: Elevated results could indicate overworked liver, excessive red blood cell breakdown, restricted liver function, hepatic infection or liver cirrhosis.

PROTEIN: Elevated results could indicate amyloidosis, bladder tumor, congestive heart failure, diabetes, nephropathy, lupus or malignant hypertension.

pH: Elevated results could indicate kidney failure or urinary tract infection.

BLOOD: Elevated levels could indicate cystitis, glomerulonephritis, kidney trauma, kidney tumor, kidney stones or prostatitis.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY: Elevated results could indicate dehydration, excessive sweating, glucosuria, heart failure or water restriction.

KETONE: Elevated results could indicate anorexia, high protein or an acute or severe illness.

BILIRUBIN: Elevated results could indicate cirrhosis, gallstones in the biliary tract, hepatitis due to biliary obstruction or tumors of the liver or gallbladder.

GLUCOSE: Elevated results could indicate diabetes mellitus.

Low Results Indicate:

LEUKOCYTES: There are no low levels for this test.

NITRITE: There are no low levels for this test.

UROBILINOGEN: Low levels may indicate an obstruction in the bile duct.

PROTEIN: There are no low values for this test.

pH: Low levels could indicate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetic ketoacidosis or diarrhea.

BLOOD: There are no low values for this test.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY: Low levels could indicate excessive fluid intake, diabetes insipidus or renal failure.

KETONE: There are no low values for this test.

BILIRUBIN: There are no low values for this test.

GLUCOSE: There are no low values for this test.

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